Dr Reshma Reddy

How to Deal with Vaginal Dryness and Discomfort

Catagory: Gyneacology  Author: Dr E Reshma Reddy

Vaginal dryness is a common condition that affects many women, causing discomfort and impacting their overall quality of life. It occurs when the walls of the vagina are not adequately lubricated, leading to itching, burning, and painful intercourse. In this comprehensive guide, we will explore the causes of vaginal dryness, diagnosis methods, available treatments, and home remedies to alleviate symptoms.

What is Vaginal Dryness?

Vaginal dryness occurs when the walls of the vagina lack sufficient lubrication, leading to discomfort and pain during sexual intercourse. Normally, the vagina is naturally lubricated by a thin layer of clear fluid. This lubrication helps maintain the health, thickness, and elasticity of the vaginal lining. However, a decrease in estrogen levels can reduce the amount of moisture available, causing dryness.

Causes of Vaginal Dryness

Vaginal dryness can be caused by a number of variables. The most common cause is a decrease in estrogen levels, which often occurs during menopause. However, other factors can also lead to vaginal dryness, including:

  • Childbirth and breastfeeding
  • Radiation or chemotherapy treatment for cancer
  • Surgical removal of the ovaries
  • Anti-estrogen drugs used to treat endometriosis or uterine fibroids
  • Sjögren’s syndrome (an autoimmune disorder that affects moisture-producing cells)
  • Certain medications, such as allergy and cold medications, and certain antidepressants
  • Douching and inadequate foreplay before sexual activity

It is important to note that vaginal dryness can affect women of all ages and not just those going through menopause. Making the right treatment decisions requires a thorough understanding of the underlying problem.

2. Diagnosing Vaginal Dryness

When to Seek Medical Help

If you are experiencing symptoms of vaginal dryness, it is important to consult a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis. You should consider seeking medical help if you experience:

Persistent vaginal dryness that lasts for an extended period
Severe itching, burning, or discomfort in the vaginal area
Pain during sexual intercourse
Changes in vaginal discharge or odor
Any other unusual symptoms or concerns
A healthcare professional will be able to evaluate your symptoms, identify the underlying cause, and recommend appropriate treatment options.

Pelvic Exam and Pap Test

During a medical examination for vaginal dryness, your healthcare provider will likely perform a pelvic exam to assess the condition of your vagina. This involves visual inspection and palpation of the vaginal walls to check for thinning or redness. The healthcare provider may also collect cells from your vaginal wall or cervix for a Pap test, which screens for cervical cancer and other abnormalities.

These tests help rule out other potential causes of your symptoms, such as vaginal or urinary tract infections. They also provide valuable information for determining the most suitable treatment approach.

3. Medical Treatments for Vaginal Dryness

Topical Estrogen Therapy

The most common treatment for vaginal dryness caused by low estrogen levels is topical estrogen therapy. Topical estrogen products replace the hormone that the body is no longer producing, helping to alleviate vaginal symptoms. There are different types of topical estrogen available, including:

1. Estrogen Ring (Estring): This soft, flexible ring is inserted into the vagina, releasing a steady stream of estrogen directly to the vaginal tissues. The ring is typically replaced every three months.

2. Estrogen Tablet (Imvexxy, Vagifem): These tablets are applied using a disposable applicator and inserted into the vagina. Treatment usually involves using a tablet daily for the first two weeks, followed by twice a week until no longer needed.

3. Estrogen Cream (Estrace, Estradiol, Premarin): A cream is applied to the vagina using an applicator. Initially, the cream is applied daily for one to two weeks, and then the frequency is reduced to one to three times a week as directed by your healthcare provider.

It is important to note that any estrogen product may have potential side effects, including vaginal bleeding and breast pain. Women with certain medical conditions, such as breast or endometrial cancer, should consult their healthcare provider before using estrogen therapy.

Other Medications

In some cases, healthcare providers may prescribe other medications to relieve vaginal dryness. For example, ospemifene (Osphena) is an oral medication that can make vaginal tissue thicker and less fragile, reducing pain during intercourse. However, it is important to note that Osphena may carry certain risks, such as thickening the lining of the uterus and an increased risk of stroke and blood clots. Consequently, it should only be used under a healthcare provider’s supervision.

Another option is Intrarosa, a vaginal suppository that contains a steroid. It helps alleviate vaginal dryness but may cause vaginal discharge and abnormalities in Pap test results. Before beginning therapy, it is crucial to explore the possible dangers and benefits with your healthcare professional as with any medicine.

4. Non-Medical Solutions for Vaginal Dryness

Vaginal Moisturizers

Vaginal moisturizers are specially formulated products designed to provide long-lasting moisture to the vaginal tissues. They can be applied regularly to alleviate dryness and relieve discomfort. Vaginal moisturizers are different from lubricants, as they are intended for daily use and provide ongoing hydration rather than just temporary lubrication during sexual activity.

When choosing a vaginal moisturizer, look for products that are free of irritants and fragrances. Apply the moisturizer to the walls of the vagina, allowing it to absorb. It is important to note that moisturizers should be specifically designed for vaginal use and not substituted with regular lotions or creams.

Water-Based Lubricants

Water-based lubricants can be used during sexual activity to provide temporary relief from vaginal dryness and reduce discomfort. These lubricants are safe to use with condoms and do not weaken them, unlike oil-based lubricants. When selecting a water-based lubricant, opt for products that are free from glycerin and petroleum jelly, as these ingredients can potentially worsen vaginal dryness or cause irritation.

Using a water-based lubricant before intercourse can enhance pleasure and reduce friction, making sexual activity more comfortable. Additionally, it is important to engage in sufficient foreplay to allow natural lubrication to occur. Communication with your partner about your needs and preferences is key to a satisfying and enjoyable sexual experience.

Regular Sexual Activity

Engaging in regular sexual activity, whether alone or with a partner, can help improve overall vaginal health and alleviate symptoms of dryness. Sexual stimulation increases blood flow to the vaginal area and promotes natural lubrication. If you are experiencing vaginal dryness, regular sexual activity can help maintain the health and elasticity of the vaginal tissues.

Exploring different sexual activities that do not necessarily involve intercourse, such as massaging, mutual masturbation, oral sex, or other forms of intimate touch, can also be fulfilling and help maintain the connection with your partner. It is essential to communicate openly with your partner about your needs and any discomfort you may be experiencing.

Pelvic Floor Exercises

Pelvic floor exercises, commonly known as Kegel exercises, can help strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor, including those surrounding the vagina. These exercises involve contracting and relaxing the pelvic floor muscles, similar to the action of stopping urine flow.

Regular practice of pelvic floor exercises can improve blood flow to the vaginal area, strengthen the vaginal muscles, and enhance overall vaginal health. To perform Kegel exercises, identify the pelvic floor muscles by squeezing the muscles you would use to stop the flow of urine. For a few seconds, hold the contraction, then let go. Increase the number of repetitions and the length gradually.

5. Lifestyle Changes to Manage Vaginal Dryness

Hydration and Diet

Maintaining proper hydration is essential for overall vaginal health. Drinking an adequate amount of water throughout the day helps keep the body hydrated, including the vaginal tissues. Additionally, consuming a balanced diet rich in nutrients can support vaginal health. Foods high in omega-3 fatty acids, such as salmon and flaxseeds, may have a positive impact on vaginal lubrication.

Avoiding Irritants

Certain products and activities can irritate the vaginal area and worsen symptoms of dryness. It is important to avoid using harsh soaps, scented products, douches, and perfumes in the vaginal area, as these can disrupt the natural balance and cause irritation. Opt for gentle, fragrance-free cleansers when washing the vaginal area to maintain optimal vaginal health.

Stress Reduction

Stress can contribute to hormonal imbalances in the body, which may indirectly affect vaginal health. Incorporating stress reduction techniques into your daily routine, such as meditation, deep breathing exercises, yoga, or engaging in hobbies, can help maintain hormonal balance and promote overall well-being, including vaginal health.

Smoking Cessation

Smoking has been linked to various health issues, including decreased blood flow and hormonal imbalances. These factors can contribute to vaginal dryness. Quitting smoking can have numerous benefits for overall health, including improved blood flow and hormonal regulation, which may positively impact vaginal health.

6. Alternative Remedies for Vaginal Dryness

Hyaluronic Acid-Based Suppositories

Hyaluronic acid-based vaginal suppositories, such as Revaree, can effectively provide long-lasting moisture to the vaginal tissues. These suppositories are inserted into the vagina to help alleviate dryness and discomfort. Hyaluronic acid attracts and retains water, helping to hydrate the vaginal walls. It is a safe and effective alternative for women seeking non-hormonal options for managing vaginal dryness.

Oral Medications

Oral medications, such as omega-7 fatty acid supplements, may help improve vaginal moisture levels. Omega-7 fatty acids, derived from sea buckthorn oil, have been found to promote the hydration of mucous membranes, including those in the vagina. Before beginning any supplement regimen, it is crucial to speak with a healthcare provider to confirm its safety and effectiveness.

7. Preventing Vaginal Dryness

Maintaining Hormonal Balance

Maintaining hormonal balance is crucial for vaginal health. For women going through menopause, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may be an option to alleviate vaginal dryness. HRT involves taking estrogen and progesterone supplements to balance hormone levels. However, it is important to discuss the potential risks and benefits of HRT with a healthcare professional before considering this treatment.

Proper Hygiene Practices

Maintaining vaginal health requires proper cleanliness practises. Avoid using harsh soaps or cleansers in the vaginal area, as they can disrupt the natural pH balance and cause dryness. Opt for gentle, fragrance-free cleansers and avoid excessive washing, as this can strip away natural lubrication.

Using Lubrication During Intercourse

Using a water-based lubricant during sexual activity can help alleviate discomfort caused by vaginal dryness. Lubricants reduce friction and provide temporary moisture, making intercourse more comfortable. It is important to choose lubricants that are free from irritants and compatible with condoms, if necessary.

8. When to Consult a Healthcare Professional

Underlying Medical Conditions

If you suspect that an underlying medical condition may be causing or exacerbating your vaginal dryness, it is important to consult a healthcare professional. Conditions such as Sjögren’s syndrome, autoimmune disorders, or hormonal imbalances require proper diagnosis and management.

Persistent or Worsening Symptoms

If your symptoms of vaginal dryness persist or worsen despite trying home remedies or over-the-counter products, it is advisable to seek medical attention. A healthcare professional can evaluate your condition, rule out other potential causes, and recommend appropriate treatment options.


Vaginal dryness can cause significant discomfort and affect a woman’s overall well-being. However, there are numerous treatment options available to alleviate symptoms and improve vaginal health. From medical treatments such as topical estrogen therapy to non-medical solutions like vaginal moisturizers and lubricants, finding the right approach may require some trial and error. It is essential to consult with a healthcare professional to determine the underlying cause of your vaginal dryness and develop a personalized treatment plan.

Remember, maintaining overall vaginal health involves practicing good hygiene, adopting a healthy lifestyle, and communicating openly with your partner about your needs and concerns. With the right approach, you can effectively manage vaginal dryness and reclaim your comfort and pleasure.